Medio Ambiente

PJ-MA-86-LE HOJA A BASE DE CÁSCARA DE PAPA

Acción por el clima

Asesor: Paola Berzunza Mata

Pandilla Juvenil (1ro. 2do. y 3ro. de nivel Secundaria)

Resumen

En este proyecto se realizó una hoja a base de cáscara de papa y hojas recicladas, es una gran ayuda al medio ambiente, por lo cual se necesita hacer una hoja con ingredientes de cáscaras recicladas, se quiere apoyar al medio ambiente intentando reducir la tala de árboles.

Ya que en todas partes se cortan árboles por lo que en ellos viven los animales y por lo mismo se están muriendo esos animales, no se puede vivir sin árboles porque forman parte de la naturaleza por lo que los materiales que se ocuparon para realizar el proyecto son reciclados, para no desperdiciar las hojas se reutilizaron, también a la cáscara se le dio un uso para no tirarlas a la basura y no usar materiales químicos para no estar en contra de la naturaleza.

Las cáscaras de patatas poseen un alto contenido de potasio, fósforo, almidón, calcio, hierro, azufre, alcalinas, cobre y vitamina C, los cuales conforman un conjunto ideal para prevenir y tratar los cálculos renales, ya que los ayuda a disolverse la fibra que posee ayuda a mejorar el metabolismo.

Con este proyecto se pretende disminuir la tala de árboles y la contaminación del ambiente con plástico, además de dar utilidad a residuos orgánicos de la papa, ya que estos solo se desechan. Se elaborará un papel a base de cáscara de papa resistente y de mejor textura empleando la metodología tradicional para elaborar papel, pero utilizando la cáscara de papa, además aplicándola como materia prima principal.

Pregunta de Investigación

¿Se podrá hacer hojas recicladas con cáscaras de papa?

Planteamiento del Problema

Actualmente en México 128.8 mil hectáreas de bosques se pierden al año debido a varios factores como la tala inmoderada, incendios forestales ya que nosotros queremos ayudar al medio ambiente en que no ocasione más deforestación.

 

 

Antecedentes

3.1.-Tipos de papel y su tiempo en degradarse

3.1.2.-Papel repro:

El papel repro es también llamado papel offset o de impresión. Se trata del tipo de papel más habitual en el mercado y se fabrica en grandes cantidades.

3.1.3.-Papel satinado:

El papel satinado tiene un acabado muy definido y estéticamente se caracteriza por su brillo. Es un tipo de papel que destaca por ser realmente suave, con un resultado final brillante mate.

1 año

3.1.4.-Papel adhesivo:

Como su propio nombre indica, el papel adhesivo tiene la particularidad de que se puede enganchar.

2 años

3.1.5.-Papel reciclado:

Realmente, la finalidad del papel reciclado puede ser muy diversa. Este tipo de papel se elabora a partir de restos de otros papeles y su uso ha ido creciendo en los últimos años a causa de la mayor preocupación por el medioambiente. 1 año

3.1.6.-Papel bond:

Se trata del papel tipo carta, que presenta una gran resistencia y puede fabricarse en colores o blanco, teniendo normalmente un gramaje entre los 60 y 130 gr

1 año

3.1.7.-Papel Glossy:

El papel Glossy es el que se usa especialmente para imprimir fotografías, aunque también es utilizado con otro tipo de imágenes y textos 1 año

3.1.8.-Papel ecológico o biodegradable:

Puede pensarse que el papel bio y el reciclado son lo mismo, pero no es así. Si bien comparten el hecho de que son fabricados pensando en el medio ambiente, el papel bio lo es porque se hace cumpliendo unos determinados requisitos de fabricación

1 año

3.1.9.-Papel cuché o estucado:

El papel estucado o cuché tiene una resistencia baja, debido a que se compone de gran cantidad de carga y se fabrica de fibras cortas más que largas.

 

3.1.10.-Papel tissue

El papel tissue se caracteriza por tener una alta absorbencia y suavidad.

Su resistencia al agua varía en función de su finalidad, que suele ser de tipo doméstico

1 año

3.1.11.-Papel prensa

El papel prensa es el que se usa para hacer periódicos y tiene su sentido, puesto que este material tiene una caducidad muy temprana.

1 año

3.1.12.-Cartón:

El cartón se elabora a partir de papel con diferentes grosores. En su elaboración se usa pasta cruda y sin blanquear, haciendo que mantenga su característico color marrón

1 año

3.1.13.-Cartoncillo:

Se puede relacionar con el cartón, aunque se usa para productos más pequeños.

Es el cartón que podemos encontrar en cajas de cereales o galletas.

4 meses

 

3.1.14.-Cartulina:

La cartulina es un tipo de papel más grueso que el repro, con mayor rigidez y volumen. 4 meses

3.1.15.-Papel de manualidades:

Aunque se podría englobar en el papel de bellas artes, el papel de manualidades no se suele pintar.

1 año

3.1.16.-Papel autocopiativo y vegetal:

El papel autocopiativo es un material que, al aplicar presión sobre él, se puede manchar.

1 año

3.1.17.-Papel de bellas artes:

El papel de bellas artes es el nombre que reciben varios tipos de papeles cuya finalidad es ser utilizados en el mundo de las artes plásticas.

1 año

3.2.- ¿Cómo afectan las hojas a la tala de árboles?

La tala indiscriminada de árboles provoca la deforestación de los bosques y selvas, fundamentalmente causadas por los humanos.

En Recicla más, queremos hablaros de lo que nos afecta a nosotros directamente en este caso, como es el reciclaje de papel y cartón y cuya materia prima es la madera.

El papel es un material constituido por una delgada lámina elaborada a partir de pulpa de celulosa,1 una pasta de fibras vegetales molidas suspendidas en agua, generalmente blanqueada, y posteriormente secada y endurecida, a la que normalmente se le añaden sustancias como polipropileno o polietileno con el fin de proporcionarle características especiales.

Las fibras que lo componen están aglutinadas mediante enlaces por puente de hidrógeno. También se denomina papel, hoja, o folio, a un pliego individual o recorte de este material.

3.3.- ¿Qué es el papel?

El papel es un material constituido por una delgada lámina elaborada a partir de pulpa de celulosa,1 una pasta de fibras vegetales molidas suspendidas en agua, generalmente blanqueada, y posteriormente secada y endurecida, a la que normalmente se le añaden sustancias como polipropileno o polietileno con el fin de proporcionarle características especiales.

Las fibras que lo componen están aglutinadas mediante enlaces por puente de hidrógeno. También se denomina papel, hoja, o folio, a un pliego individual o recorte de este material.

3.3.1.- ¿Cuántos árboles se necesitan para hacer una hoja de papel?

Los que se emplean para la fabricación de papel son las especies de madera más duras, tales como robles y arce. Para fabricar una tonelada de papel se utilizan alrededor de 17 árboles. Hay que tener en cuenta que un árbol proporciona oxígeno para que respiren 3 personas al día. El consumo mundial de papel excede los 268 millones de toneladas al año. Para fabricar una tonelada de papel se cortan alrededor de 14 árboles.

3.3.2.- ¿Cuáles son los principales componentes del papel?

Fibra de madera o papel.

Componente de fibra adicional.

Fibra básica para el papel de alta calidad.

 

Tintes y pigmentos.

Agentes de encolado.

 

3.4.-Las hojas son malas para el medio ambiente

Es una de las mayores contaminantes del agua y del aire. Es una de las que más gases efecto invernadero emite, alrededor de 3,3 kg de CO2 equivalente por cada kilo de papel. En el blanqueo de la pasta se utiliza el cloro, que es muy nocivo para la salud de las personas y para el medio ambiente.

 

3.4.1.-Por qué es importante reciclar el papel

El tiempo de permanencia del papel y de los demás residuos en el medio ambiente, conlleva diversas problemáticas ambientales asociadas, tales como la contaminación del suelo, del agua y del aire; así como el aumento del riesgo de incendios forestales, riesgos sanitarios y la alteración de los ciclos de vida de animales y plantas

3.5.- ¿Cómo contamina el papel en el medio ambiente?

El proceso kraft da lugar a una pasta marrón y produce emisiones tóxicas al aire, tales como dióxido de azufre -entre 1 y 3 kg por tonelada de pasta (Greenpeace, 1 992)

3.5.1.- ¿Dónde se fabrican las hojas de papel?

El papel es un material orgánico que se obtiene principalmente a partir de las fibras de celulosa de madera virgen de los árboles para conseguir una pulpa. Dicha pulpa de celulosa se puede obtener a partir de madera virgen o también a partir de papel reciclado.

3.5.2¿Cómo afecta la tala de árboles en el medio ambiente?

La falta de bosques ocasiona la pérdida del hábitat de millones de especies porque, según algunos cálculos el 70 % de animales y plantas habitan los bosques, y coadyuva al cambio climático, los suelos húmedos sin la protección de los árboles se secan rápidamente.

Algunas especies que mueren por la tala de árboles:

1.Anfibios.

2.Aves.

3.Mamíferos.

3.6.- ¿Cuánto tarda en degradarse la cáscara de papa?

El Instituto Politécnico Nacional (IPN) dice que la cáscara de papa tarda de cuatro a cinco meses en degradarse.

3.7.-INFORMACIÓN NUTRICIONAL DE LA CÁSCARA DE PAPA

Calorías:                                                                                                           83 Kcal

Proteínas:                                                                                                         3 g

Grasas Totales:                                                                                                0 g

Saturadas:                                                                                                        0 g

Insaturadas:                                                                                                     0 g

Trans:                                                                                                                0 g

Carbohidratos                                                                                                  18 g

Azúcares Simples:                                                                                           0 g

Fibra:                                                                                                                 2 g

Sodio:                                                                                                                24 mg

3.7.1.- ¿Cómo se puede reciclar la cáscara de papa?

Conviene triturar o bien reducir el tamaño de las cáscaras y restos de papa que se incorporan al compost. Así se favorece que estos se descompongan más rápidamente sumando al preparado los nutrientes que poseen.

3.8.- ¿Qué es el camote?

El camote es una planta perenne que se desarrolla bajo el suelo y posee estructuras vegetativas comestibles de alto valor nutritivo.

Es un tubérculo que contiene agua, fibra, lípidos, proteínas, grasas, almidón, azúcares, vitaminas, minerales y aminoácidos.

3.8.1.- ¿Qué beneficios tiene la cáscara de camote?

El principal aporte del camote morado es ser un excelente antioxidante, el cual ayuda a combatir el estrés oxidativo y el síndrome metabólico; así como a evitar enfermedades cardiovasculares, incluso, controlar la diabetes.

3.9.- ¿Qué contiene el camote?

El camote es una planta perenne que se desarrolla bajo el suelo y posee estructuras vegetativas comestibles de alto valor nutritivo.

Agua, fibra, lípidos, proteínas, grasas, almidón, azúcares, vitaminas, minerales y aminoácidos, el camote morado es rico en carbohidratos, vitaminas C, B6 y A, minerales como el potasio, fibra y compuestos antioxidantes.

 

Las antocianinas destacan ya que son exclusivas de las frutas y hortalizas de color morado. Las antocianinas tienen grandes beneficios para la salud.

 

 

3.10.-Información Nutricional de la cáscara del camote

 

Ácido ascórbico                                                                                    2.4-25 mg

Retinol                                                                                                  0.1 – 4.256 mg

Tamina                                                                                                              0.78 – .7 mg

Riboflavina                                                                                            0.05 – 0.061 mg

Niacina                                                                                                  0.557 – 52 mg

Ácido pantoténico                                                                                 800 mg

Piridoxina                                                                                              0.209 – .27 mg

Folato 11 –                                                                                            17 mg

Colina                                                                                                   12.3 mg

Vit-K 1.                                                                                                 84 mg

B- caroteno 5.63 –                                                                                15.63 mg

Sodio 19 –                                                                                            55 mg

Potasio 200 –                                                                                       385 mg

Fósforo 47 –                                                                                          55 mg

Calcio 7 –                                                                                              34 mg

Magnesio 18 –                                                                                       25 mg

Hierro 0.61 –                                                                                          1 mg

Zinc 0.30 –                                                                                             .39

Selenio 0.6 –                                                                                         1 mg

Cobre                                                                                                  0.151 mg

Manganeso                                                                                         0.258 mg

 

3.10.1.- ¿El camote contiene almidón?

 

Las raíces de camote tienen alto contenido de carbohidratos; sus concentraciones de almidón varían de 55.8 a 73.8 g/100 g expresado en peso seco siendo la sacarosa, glucosa y fructosa los principales azúcares en los tubérculos frescos, y la maltosa, producida durante la cocción a través de la conversión del almidón.

El camote de pulpa anaranjada es una rica fuente de beta caroteno, cuyos contenidos van desde 1.1 a 26 mg/100 g expresado en peso seco.

 

3.10.2.- ¿El camote es proteína o carbohidrato?

Un camote mediano contiene 112 calorías, 2 gramos de proteína, 0 gramos de grasa, 26 gramos de carbohidratos y 4 gramos de fibra.

 

Objetivo

Elaborar una hoja hecha con cáscara de papa.

Justificación

Nos interesa este tema ya que la tala de árboles es un problema mundial, con nuestra hoja reduciremos la deforestación y la hoja que realizaremos será a base de varios ingredientes reciclados para no desperdiciar las cáscaras

Hipótesis

Si se elabora una hoja a base de cáscara de papa entonces se podrá ayudar a reducir la deforestación

Método (materiales y procedimiento)

Materiales

Hojas recicladas

10 mml. Agua

1 Licuadora

1 Marco de madera con malla

50 gr.  cáscara de papa

50 gr.  cáscara de camote

 

Procedimiento

Paso 1: Materiales

Paso 2: Se va a licuar la cáscara ya sea de papa, camote con las hojas recicladas

Paso 3: Después se agrega el agua a la licuadora con los ingredientes.

Paso 4: Luego pasar la mezcla a la maya para quitar el exceso de agua.

Paso 5: Poner la mezcla en una superficie plana y con las manos iniciar a darle forma.

Paso 6: Dejar secar en el sol por 4 horas.

Paso 7: Despejar la hoja de la malla.

Galería Método

Resultados

Se realizó una hoja de cáscara de papa y hojas recicladas.

Galería Resultados

Discusión

La primera vez que se realizó la hoja no quedó como se esperaba ya que al momento de sacarla hoja de la malla se rompió y al escribir no se veía lo que se escribía   

Conclusiones

Con este proyecto se concluye la importancia de cuidar el medio ambiente, si se sigue talando los árboles esto ocasionará mayor calentamiento global, que los hábitats de animales desaparezcan y se altere el clima.

Bibliografía

Summary

In this project, a sheet was made based on potato skins and recycled leaves, it is a
great help to the environment, for which it is necessary to make a sheet with
ingredients from recycled peels. We want to support the environment by trying to
reduce the felling of trees.
Since trees are cut down everywhere, so animals live in them and for the same
reason those animals are dying, you cannot live without trees because they are part
of nature, so the materials that were used to carry out the project they are recycled,
so as not to waste the leaves they were reused, the shell was also given a use so as
not to throw them in the trash and not to use chemical materials so as not to be
against nature.
Potato skins have a high content of potassium, phosphorus, starch, calcium, iron,
sulfur, alkaline, copper and vitamin C, which make up an ideal set to prevent and
treat kidney stones, since the fiber helps them dissolve. It has helped improve
metabolism.
This project aims to reduce the felling of trees and the contamination of the
environment with plastic, in addition to giving use to organic potato waste, since
these are only discarded. A paper based on resistant potato skin and better texture
will be made using the traditional methodology to make paper but using potato skin,
also applying it as the main raw material.

Research Question

¿Will it be possible to make recycled leaves with various types of shells?

Problem approach

Currently in Mexico, 128.8 thousand
hectares of forests are lost each year
due to various factors such as
excessive logging, forest fires, and
because we want to help the
environment so that it does not cause
more deforestation.

Background

3.1.-What does the eggshell contain?
Eggshell membranes are a network of
collagen fibers (mainly type X),
glycoproteins, and proteins. The
thickest part of the mineral layer is
made up of columnar crystals of calcite
(calcium carbonate).
3.2.-What is the function of the
eggshell?
The function of the egg shell is that the
embryo can develop extrauterine.

Therefore, it is a reservoir that has to
provide the calcium necessary for
development, so the interior must have
calcium in an easily assimilable form.
The egg is formed by the shell, which
represents on average about 10% of
the egg, the white about 57% and the

yolk about 1/3 (33%)8, the yolk is
separated from the white by the yolk
sac or vitelline membrane 9.
3.3.-What is the eggshell made of?
Paper is a material made up of a thin
sheet made from cellulose pulp,1 a
paste of ground vegetable fibers
suspended in water, generally
bleached, and subsequently dried and
hardened, to which substances such
as polypropylene or polyethylene are
normally added. in order to provide
you with special features. The fibers
that compose it are agglutinated by
means of hydrogen bonds. It is also
called paper, sheet, or folio, to an
individual sheet or cut of this material.
3.4.-What is the eggshell made of?
According to the American Egg Board,
the eggshell is composed of calcium
carbonate (approximately 94%) with
small amounts of magnesium
carbonate, calcium phosphate, and
other organic matter, such as protein.
3.5.-How is the eggshell formed?
The egg shell is formed in the uterus
or shell gland by deposition of calcium
carbonate. The formation of the shell
lasts approximately 20 hours. The
calcium that is deposited in the shell
arrives through blood circulation.
3.6.-What is the egg shell?
From its appearance at first glance, it
is quite logical to think that the shell it

has a high percentage of calcium in its
composition.
3.6.1.-Types of paper and their time
to degrade
3.6.2.-Repropaper:
Repro paper is also called offset or
printing paper. It is the most common
type of paper on the market and is
manufactured in large quantities.
1 year
3.6.3.-Glossy paper:
Glossy paper is the one used
especially to print photographs,
although it is also used with other
types of images and texts. 1 year
3.6.6.-Bond paper:
It is letter-type paper, which is highly
resistant and can be manufactured in
colors or white, normally having a
grammage between 60 and 130 gr.
1 year.
3.6.7.-Glossy paper:
Glossy paper is the one used
especially to print photographs,
although it is also used with other
types of images and texts 1 year
3.6.8.-Ecological or biodegradable
paper:
It may be thought that bio and recycled
paper are the same, but this is not the
case. Although they share the fact that
they are manufactured with the
environment in mind, bio paper is so
because it is made in compliance with
certain manufacturing requirements.

1 year
3.6.9.-Coated or coated paper:
Coated or coated paper has low
strength because it is highly filled and
is made from short rather than long
fibers. 1 year
3.6.10.-Tissue paper
Tissue paper is characterized by
having a high absorbency and
softness. Its resistance to water varies
depending on its purpose, which is
usually domestic.
1 year
3.6.11.-Newspaper
Newspaper is the one used to make
newspapers and it makes sense, since
this material has a very early
expiration date.
1 year
3.6.12.-Cardboard:
Cardboard is made from paper with
different thicknesses. In its elaboration
raw and unbleached pasta is used,
making it maintain its characteristic
brown color
1 year
3.6.13.-Cardboard:
It can be related to cardboard,
although it is used for smaller
products. It is the cardboard that we
can find in cereal or cookie boxes.
4 months
3.6.14.-Cardboard:

Glossy paper has a very defined finish
and is aesthetically characterized by
its shine. It is a type of paper that
stands out for being really smooth,
with a shiny matte final result.
1 year
3.6.15.-Craft paper:
Although it could be encompassed in
fine art paper, craft paper is rarely
painted.
1 year
3.6.16.-Carbonless and vegetable
paper:
Carbonless paper is a material that
can stain when pressure is applied to
it.
1 year

3.6.17.-Fine art paper:
Fine art paper is the name given to
various types of papers whose
purpose is to be used in the world of
plastic arts.
1 year
3.7.-How do the leaves affect the
felling of trees?
The indiscriminate felling of trees
causes the deforestation of forests and
jungles, mainly caused by humans. At
Recicla más, we want to talk to you
about what affects us directly in this
case, such as recycling paper and
cardboard and whose raw material is
wood.
Paper is a material made up of a thin
sheet made from cellulose pulp, 1 a

pulp of ground vegetable fibers
suspended in water, generally
bleached, and subsequently dried and
hardened, to which substances such
as polypropylene or polyethylene are
normally added. in order to provide
you with special features. The fibers
that compose it are bound by
hydrogen bonding. Also called paper,
sheet, or folio, an individual sheet or
cut of this material.
3.8.- What is paper?
Paper is a material made up of a thin
sheet made from cellulose pulp, 1 a
pulp of ground vegetable fibers
suspended in water, generally
bleached, and subsequently dried and
hardened, to which substances such
as polypropylene or polyethylene are
normally added. in order to provide
you with special features. The fibers
that compose it are bound by
hydrogen bonding. Also called paper,
sheet, or folio, an individual sheet or
cut of this material.
3.8.1.-How many trees are needed to
make a sheet of paper?
Those used to make paper are the
hardest species of wood, such as oak
and maple. About 17 trees are used to
make one ton of paper. It must be
taken into account that a tree provides
oxygen for 3 people to breathe a day.
The world consumption of paper
exceeds 268 million tons per year. To
make one ton of paper, around 14
trees are cut down.
3.8.2.-What are the main
components of paper?

Wood fiber or paper.
Additional fiber component.
Basic fiber for high-quality paper.
Bleach.
Dyes and pigments.
Sizing agents.
Fillings
3.9.-Leaves are bad for the
environment
It is one of the biggest pollutants in
water and air. It is one of the ones that
emits the most greenhouse gases,
around 3.3 kg of CO2 equivalent per
kilo of paper. Chlorine is used in
bleaching pulp, which is very harmful
to human health and to the
environment. environment.
3.9.1.-Why is it important to recycle
paper
The time of permanence of the paper
and of the other residues in the
environment, entails diverse
associated environmental problems,
such as the contamination of the
ground, the water and the air; as well
as the increased risk of forest fires,
health risks and the alteration of the
life cycles of animals and plants
3.10.-How does paper pollute the
environment?
The kraft process produces a brown
pulp and produces toxic air emissions,
such as sulfur dioxide – between 1 and
3 kg per ton of pulp (Greenpeace,
1992)

3.10.1.-Where are the sheets of
paper made?
Paper is an organic material that is
obtained mainly from the virgin wood
cellulose fibers of trees to obtain a
pulp. Said cellulose pulp can be
obtained from virgin wood or also from
recycled paper.
3.10.2 How does logging affect the
environment?
The lack of forests causes the loss of
habitat for millions of species because,
according to some calculations, 70%
of animals and plants inhabit forests,
and contributes to climate change, wet
soils without the protection of trees dry
out quickly.
Some species that die from tree felling:
1. Amphibians.
2.Birds.
3. Mammals.
3.11.-What are the properties of the
egg shell?
A typical eggshell contains
approximately 0.3% phosphorus and
0.3% magnesium, and traces of
sodium, potassium, zinc, manganese,
iron, and copper.
Nourishing mask. …
Natural bandage. …
Reduce wrinkles. …
Improve the taste of coffee …
Additional minerals.
It has a high vitamin and mineral value
3.11.1.-Avoid constipation
By containing large amounts of dietary
fibers, it favors the gastrointestinal

tract. This is because they help to slow
down the absorption of nutrients,
giving a feeling of satisfaction. It also
prevents toxic material from being
absorbed in the intestine and prevents
bad cholesterol from adhering. The
protection provided by the fibers helps
prevent colic and gastric cancer.
3.11.2.-Helps heal wounds
Studies have shown that using potato
peels on wounds or burns helps
prevent superficial skin loss. It also
prevents bacteria and fungi from
developing in the lesions, all thanks to
the antimicrobial activity, chlorogenic
acid, caffeic acid and gallic acid, which
are natural antioxidants and
bacteriostats.
3.11.3.-Prevents cancer
Due to the high content of dietary
fibers it contains, it helps to block the
absorption of toxins that can develop
cancer in the intestine. Potato peels
also have natural antioxidants.
3.11.4.-Take care of the heart
Thanks to the dietary fibers it has, it
helps reduce blood cholesterol levels,
thus reducing cardiovascular diseases.
It also contains natural antioxidants
that protect the heart from oxidative
stress from free radicals.
3.11.5.-Avoid kidney stones
Potato peels are high in potassium,
phosphorus, starch, calcium, iron,
sulfur, alkaline, copper and vitamin C.

The most common symptom is sharp
pain, usually on the side of the
abdomen, which is usually
accompanied by nausea.
3.11.6.-Decreases high blood
pressure
Research has revealed that due to the
high potassium content that potato
peel has, it helps to treat hypertension,
rheumatism and other disorders. The
best way to use it is by making a tea
with them.
3.11.7.-Treat diabetes
By ingesting the dietary fiber that the
potato peel has, it helps to control the
process of absorption of glucose in the
stomach and slow down the increase
in blood sugar levels.
3.12.-How long does the potato peel
take to degrade?
The National Polytechnic Institute
(IPN) says it takes four to five months
for potato skins to degrade.
3.13.-NUTRITIONAL INFORMATION
ON THE POTATO PEEL
Calories: 83 Kcal
Proteins: 3 g
Total Fat: 0 g
Saturated: 0 g
Unsaturated: 0 g
Trans: 0 g
Carbohydrates 18 g
Simple Sugars: 0 g
Fiber: 2 g
Sodium: 24 mg

3.13.1.-How can potato peel be
recycled?
It is convenient to crush or reduce the
size of the potato peels and remains
that are incorporated into the compost.
This helps them to decompose more
quickly by adding the nutrients they
have to the preparation.
3.14.-What is sweet potato?
The sweet potato is a perennial plant
that grows underground and has
edible vegetative structures of high
nutritional value. It is a tuber that
contains water, fiber, lipids, proteins,
fats, starch, sugars, vitamins, minerals
and amino acids.
3.14.1.-What are the benefits of
sweet potato peel?
The main contribution of purple sweet
potatoes is being an excellent
antioxidant, which helps fight oxidative
stress and metabolic syndrome; as
well as avoiding cardiovascular
diseases, including controlling
diabetes.
3.15.-What diseases does sweet
potato peel prevent?
The main contribution of purple sweet
potatoes is being an excellent
antioxidant, which helps fight oxidative
stress and metabolic syndrome; as
well as avoiding cardiovascular
diseases, including controlling
diabetes.
3.15.1.-What does the sweet potato
contain?

The sweet potato is a perennial plant
that grows under the ground and has
edible vegetative structures of high
nutritional value: water, fiber, lipids,
proteins, fats, starch, sugars, vitamins,
minerals and amino acids, the purple
sweet potato is rich in carbohydrates,
vitamins C, B6 and A, minerals like
potassium, fiber and antioxidant
compounds. Anthocyanins stand out
as they are unique to purple colored
fruits and vegetables Anthocyanins
have great health benefits.
3.16.-Nutritional Information of the
sweet potato peel
Ascorbic acid 2.4-25 mg
Retinol 0.1 – 4.256 mg
Tamina 0.78 – .7 mg
Riboflavin 0.05 – 0.061 mg
Niacin 0.557 – 52 mg
Pantothenic acid 800 mg
Pyridoxine 0.209 – .27 mg
Folate 11 – 17 mg
Choline 12.3 mg
Vit-K 1. 84 mg
B- carotene 5.63 – 15.63 mg
Sodium 19 – 55 mg
Potassium 200 – 385 mg
Phosphorus 47 – 55 mg
Calcium 7 – 34 mg
Magnesium 18 – 25 mg
Iron 0.61 – 1 mg
Zinc 0.30 – .39
Selenium 0.6 – 1 mg
Copper 0.151 mg
Manganese 0.258 mg
3.16.1.-Does the sweet potato
contain starch?

Sweet potato roots are high in
carbohydrates; their starch
concentrations vary from 55.8 to 73.8
g / 100 g expressed in dry weight,
sucrose, glucose and fructose being
the main sugars in fresh tubers, and
maltose, produced during cooking
through the conversion of starch.
The orange-fleshed sweet potato is a
rich source of beta-carotene, whose
contents range from 1.1 to 26 mg / 100
g expressed in dry weight.
3.16.2.-Is the sweet potato protein
or carbohydrate?
One medium sweet potato contains
112 calories, 2 grams of protein, 0
grams of fat, 26 grams of
carbohydrates, and 4 grams of fiber.

Objective

Make a leaf made with potato peel.

Justification

We are interested in this issue since the felling of trees is a global problem, with our leaf we will reduce eforestation and the leaf that we will make will be based on various recycled ingredients so as not to waste the husks

Hypothesis

If a leaf is made from potato peel, then it can help reduce deforestation

Method (materials and procedure)

Materials

10 mml. Water
1 blender
1 Wooden frame with mesh
50 gr. potato peel
50 gr. sweet potato peel
recycled paper

Procedure
Step 1:
Materials
Step 2:
The peel of either potato, sweet potato
or eggshell will be liquefied.
Step 3:
Then the water is added to the blender
with the ingredients.
Step 4:
Then pass the mixture to the mesh to
remove the excess water.
Step 5:
Put the mixture on a flat surface and
with a roller start to shape it.
Step 6:
Let it dry in the sun for 4 hours.
Step 7:
Clear the sheet from the mesh.
Step 8:
Use the sheet to see if it really works.

Results

The results obtained were that the sheet broke and unfortunately they were not the desired results.

Discussion

The first time the sheet was made, it did not turn out as expected since when the sheet was removed from the mesh it broke and when writing, you did not see what was being written.

Conclusions

Potato skins have a high content of potassium, phosphorus, starch, calcium, iron, sulfur, alkaline, copper and vitamin C, which make up an ideal set to prevent and treat kidney stones, since it helps them dissolve.

Bibliography